GREEN SUGAR, the brand of Laboratoarele Remedia is registered in the European Union and is marketed as a natural sweetener.
The beneficial effects of Stevia (Stevia Rebaudiana) are real, they have been scientifically proven in various studies, but these effects manifest themselves when given larger quantities of Stevia extract.
0 Caloric and glycemic index
The calorific value declared is between 0-0.2 kcal/g, but the UE allows to market it with 0 value, because maximum of 0.2 kcal/gram (0.9 kJ/g) it is at a consumption of 25 grams of erytritol per day!! Research confirms that more than 90% of the erythritol is removed from the human body and only about 10% is metabolized.
The Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) of the EU confirms the value of 0 (zero) calories and the zero glycemic index for erythritol, given the measured value of 0.2 kcal/gram for 25 grams of consumption of erythritol per day. Erythritol is a natural product, with a sweet taste and with high gastric tolerability compared to other polyols.
The nutrition label
Following the comments regarding the nutrition information we want to make the following clarifications: the carbohydrates or the sugars are the same thing and they can be composed of sugars, polyols and starch. In the case of the GREEN SUGAR sweetener, the contained carbohydrates are actually polyols, because the erythritol is a polyol. As mentioned above, it has no calories.
- The action of stevia in the glucose regulation
The preclinical studies indicate that the steviosides increase both the insulin secretion as well as the sensitivity to insulin. The latter can be related to the inhibition of the hepatic expression of liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyikinase (PEPCK) and of the gluconeogenesis coupled with the stimulation of the hepatic glycogen synthesis (Chen et al., 2005; Yang et al., 2009).
In a 6-week study, the mice with diabetes and fed with steviosides showed pretty significant responses to insulin in term of intensity, along with the suppression of glucagon secretion and the attenuation of the concentration of glucose in the blood (Jeppesen et al., 2003). It was found that similar beneficial effects occur in humans. In a clinical study, 12 men and women with type 2 diabetes, received, in addition to their normal diets, also either 1 g of steviosides or 1 g of corn starch (control) (Gregersen et al., 2004).
In comparison with the effects of starch, the steviosides consumption was associated with significant decrease in the peaks obtained for the postprandial glucose concentrations and with the increase of the insulinogenic index. The results show that replacing sugar with steviosides makes a good and healthy regulation of glucose in the body. In another clinical trial, the subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive 1000 mg/day of A Rebaudiosides, or placebo, for 16 weeks.
The A Rebaudiosides did not affect the glucose homeostasis and no adverse effects were reported. In addition, there were no effects of the A Rebaudiosides on blood pressure or on the lipid measurements (Maki et al., 2008b). The study results come to meet those reported by Jeppesen et al. (2006), who after 3 months of steviosides administration (1500 mg/day) showed that they do not affect the blood pressure or the blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes.
- The action of the stevia in the regulation of blood pressure
The studies performed on mice and dogs showed that steviosides induce vasorelaxation (Wong et al., 2004; Liu et al., 2003). The effect has been tested in a randomized clinical trial, double-blind, placebo-controlled for a period of 1 year. The subjects were 106 hypertensive individuals who were administered steviosides capsules (750 mg/day) or placebo (Chan et al., 2000). After 3 months, the subjects in the group with the steviosides have already presented a significant decrease in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. No adverse effects were reported.
In another 2 year clinical trial, in the group of subjects diagnosed with mild hypertension who received 1500 mg/day of steviosides significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure have been recorded compared with the placebo group (Hsieh et al., 2003).
Other clinical studies have shown that steviosides present therapeutic benefits for patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. There are two separate clinical trials for subjects with hypertension in China (Chan et al., 2000; Hsieh et al., 2003). In the 12-month clinical trial, patients had the antihypertensive medication stopped and were randomized in the study group with steviosides (750 mg/day) and in the placebo one.
The same team of researchers conducted a study in which newly diagnosed patients with mild hypertension were randomized in the steviosides group (1500 mg/day) or in the placebo one for 2 years. Both studies showed a significant reduction at the end of the treatment compared to the initial moment for both markers (systolic and diastolic blood pressure) for the steviosides group. The beneficial effects of the administration of steviosides were also reported for the subjects in a study by Gregersen et al. (2004), which demonstrated a reduction in blood glucose and glucagon levels after ingestion of 1 g of steviosides.
Two clinical trials demonstrate the effects of steviol glycosides daily consumption on the hemodynamic measurements in subjects with normal and low blood pressure, and on the glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes. The first study included subjects with normal blood pressure that were randomized and received either 1000 mg/day of A Rebaudioside, or placebo for 4 weeks.
The A Rebaudiosides are well tolerated and do not produce significant hemodynamic clinical effects (Maki et al., 2008a). The data obtained are similar to those found by Ferri et al. (2006), which did not report any effect on blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension at doses up to 15 mg/kg body weight/day for 24 weeks, for a crude extract of steviol glycoside.
The steviol glycosides have the ability to induce pharmacological effects on blood pressure and glucose homeostasis, after repeated use (Barriocanal et al., 2008). In a randomized, double-blind study; three groups of subjects (diagnosed with normal glucose homeostasis, type 1 and 2 diabetes) were given either 750 mg/day of steviol glycosides, or placebo for 3 months. No significant hemodynamic effects were identified and no steviol glycosides actions on the blood lipid markers (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL).
- The stevia action to prevent dental cavities
The stevia leaves extract and its polyphenolic compounds, the steviosides and the A rebaudiosides are not cariogenic. Unlike the sucrose solution that determines the development of dental cavities in baby rats, the steviosides are not dangerous in this respect (Das et al., 1992). The main cariogenic body, the Streptococcus mutans, is suffering of a slowdown in development and secretes less acid when grown in a culture medium containing steviosides, than when working on sucrose, glucose or fructose (Grenby, 1997; Phillips, 1987).
- The antioxidant effect of the stevia
The stevia leaves extract present antioxidant activity attributed to the interaction with the electrons of the free radicals and superoxides (Xi et al., 1998). The ethanolic extraction of the stevia leaves gives three active compounds that have significant antioxidant activity at the concentration of 60 μmol (Masuda et al., 2006).
The methanolic extract of the stevia leaves contains a high concentration of total polyphenols and flavonoids and prevents lipid peroxidation, free radical propagation and removal of DNA composition at 0.1 mg/mL (Ghanta et al., 2007). An in vitro study on the potential of the ethanolic extract of the Stevia Rebaudiana leaves indicates that it behaves as a natural antioxidant agent, also inhibiting the hydroxyl radical, the nitrous oxide and the superoxized anions (Shukla et al., 2009).
- The stevia action on the immune system
The extracts from the stevia leaves present antiviral and antimicrobial activity. The fermented and aqueous extracts have potent antimicrobial, antibacterial and antifungal activities for a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli, without affecting the intestinal flora (Ghosh et al., 2008). The hot aqueous extracts inhibit the replication of the human rotavirus in vitro by blocking the viral attachment to cells (Takahashi et al., 2001).
The inhibitory effects of polyphenolic extracts and their components on the initiation and development of tumors have been demonstrated. The Isosteviol, the hydrolysis product of steviosides inhibits DNA replication and the growth of cancer cells in the human body (LD50 between 84-167 μmol) (Mizushina et al., 2005). The Isosteviol, the steviosides, the A rebaudiosides, the C rebaudiosides and the A dulcosides inhibit the TPA-induced inflammation in mice (Yasukawa et al., 2002). The steviosides and their metabolites amplify the immune system of surveillance in mammals and the immune-modulating activity (Sehar et al., 2008). Although it has not yet been tested on humans, in vitro and in various animal models, studies show that the extract from the stevia leaves is immunostimulatory.
- The stevia action on the inflammatory bowel disease
The steviosides and the steviol exert anti-inflammatory effects on the epithelial cells of the colon (Chatsudthipong and Muanprasat, 2009). The studies on animala have shown the inhibitory effect of the steviosides on the intestinal smooth muscle contraction, stimulation that is related to the hypermotility associated with diarrhea (Shiozaki et al., 2006). The steviosides are promising to be a useful agent in the anti-diarrheal treatment, because, having a substantially molecular volume, they become relatively impermeable to the cell membranes in question.
- The stevia and the memory
The steviosides eliminate the scopolamine induced by memory deficiencies, an effect attributed to their sweetening properties. The oxidative stress and inflammations of the brain play a critical role in the dementia pathobiology and the steviosides present anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. Moreover, the anti- cholinesterase inhibiting property observed in the steviosides can make an important contribution in the anti-amnestic action. However, further studies are needed to explore the full potential of the steviosides in case of memory deficiencies.
- Stevia – a safe and non-toxic natural sweetener
The efficacy and safety of stevia leaves extracts (Geuns et al., 2004) have been demonstrated. The steviosides and the steviol as aglycone does not react directly with the DNA and does not cause genotoxic effects in the performed tests, relevant for the risk in humans (Brusick, 2008). The steviosides present a non-mutagenic character in bacteria tests, mammal cell culture and in mice (Matsui et al., 1996). In the acute and chronic toxicity studies performed on mice, the steviosides showed no effect (Xili et al., 1992; Toyoda et al., 1997). Neither did the A Rebaudiosides prove to be toxic or genotoxic (Williams and Burdock, 2009).
In addition, the stevia leaves extracts and the steviosides did not produce adverse effects on the fertility of laboratory animals, on the mating performances, pregnancy, number of fetuses or offspring growth and fertility (Shiotsu, 1996). The histopathological examination of mice tissues after the administration of A Rebaudiosides did not show macroscopic or microscopic changes in the reproductive organs (Curry and Roberts, 2008; Carakostas et al., 2008). The level of unobserved adverse effects has been calculated (NOAEL) and were obtained values between 2048 and 2273 mg of A Rebausdiosides/kg body/day (Curry and Roberts, 2008).
The pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the A rebaudiosides and the steviosides are absorbed and metabolized and then eliminated in urine and faeces (Wheeler et al., 2008). The bioactive compounds from the stevia leaves extract are not a genetic risk for humans (Brusick, 2008). The daily consumption as a food sweetener of 5-6 mg stevia leaf extract per Kg body is very safe and effective (Carakostas et al., 2008). ”
We wish to reassure you that we are launching the highest quality products accompanied by accurate information on the market.
Prof. Dr. Romulus Scorei
Farm. pr. Olguta Giurgea